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Visit to HABE by members of the Office of Minority Languages in Europe and the European Network partners th th14 and 15 June 2010 14-06-2010 LOURDES AUZMENDI, the Basque Government’s Minister for Linguistic Policy, welcomed the conference delegates, members of the Office of Minority Languages in Europe and the European Network partners. During her speech, the Basque Minister highlighted the circumstances of over forty million bilingual or trilingual European citizens who regularly use a minority and minorized language in their personal and working relations, and the need to design balanced linguistic policies in the framework of the European Union in order to accommodate the mainstream use of those languages. EUJENIO MUJIKA, HABE General Manager, said he was delighted to see that the Office and Network members had shown an active interest in learning about the Basque for Adults (Euskaldunizacion) and literacy work run by HABE in the Basque Autonomous Community and by Euskarabidea in the Autonomous Community of Navarra. The fundamental HABE challenges are set out below:  Funding the network of euskaltegis (adult Basque language schools) given the current economic downturn.  Designing a single Basque language curriculum, approved by the different public authorities in the Basque speaking area.  Application of skills tests thoroughly and professionally.  Preparing educational-pedagogical materials to teach Basque for Adults and the use of the new technologies as support tools in that process.  Synergies with the social media stakeholders to use television and radio stations to disseminate specific adult-learning programmes. ANTTON IÑURRITEGI, HABE Inspection officer, provided an updated quantitative overview of the adult Basque language learning process in the Basque Autonomous Community. The concepts developed are: Euskaltegis:  105 material and human resources structures created specifically for the Basque for Adults process. Ownership:  Public centres that are municipally owned or by district councils.  Private, mainly teachers’ cooperatives.  Self-learning centres. Since the 2002-2003 academic year, the euskaltegi networks have run according to standardised criteria in the sphere of non-formal teaching: 40 publicly-funded euskaltegis that cover 29% of the existing demand and 64 authorised private euskaltegis that deal with 73% of the demand. During the last academic year (2008- Page 1 of 14 2009), 38,957 students aged 16 or over have attended these courses to promote the use of the Basque Language. Students Characteristics:  Aged 16 or over.  Average age: 34 years old  Between 16 and 20: a progressive ageing of these students has been noted over the last twenty years (down from 32.38% to the 13.52%).  68% women; 32% men.  Training level: a qualitative increase in the educational level of the students has been seen, with the number of graduates rising from 16.39% to 28%. Profession:  20% students  18% civil servants  8% teachers  4% liberal professions  4% housewives  9% technicians  14% specialist professions  4% non-specialist professions  19% others Enrolment fees paid by each student:  €1-1.20 per class hour at private euskaltegis (€330-370 per academic year)  €2 per hour at private euskaltegis (€660 per academic year) Teaching staff  1,500 teachers  200 non-academic staff  Average age: 38 years old  70% women; 30% men. Academic training:  58% graduates with 5-year degrees  19% teacher training degrees  12% graduates with 3-year degrees  11% authorised instructors Minimum legal requirement:  University graduates with 3-year degrees Course characteristics Courses taught according to their intensity: Winter courses (from October to June): Page 2 of 14 < 10 hours a week 33.48 % 10-20 hours 35.80 % > 20 hours a week 4.89 % Residential 1.29 % Summer courses: Summer intensive 8.98 % Summer intensive 3.54 % Self-taught 12.01 % MIKEL OLAZIREGI, HABE Management Service officer, raised some initial points: Legal Status: HABE is an administrative public autonomous Institute, under the Department for Linguistic Policy at the Basque Government's Ministry of Culture. Mission: Adult education and teaching of Basque to the adult population of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Duties: Directing, coordinating and fostering the Basque for Adults process in the BAC and in Basque clubs. With regard to the HABE institutional structure, the entity has a Governing Board, to which the General Manager answers. The General Management is structured into two divisions:  The Language Educational Division  Management Division. The Language Educational Division:  Curriculum Development Section  Evaluation Section  Training Section  Educational Material Section  Specific Programme Section  Educational Resources Section  The Management Division:  Inspection Section  IT Section  Administrative and Economics Section  Labour and Legal Section  Reception and Information  Library where 67 public employees currently work. The HABE budget for 2010 was around 45 million euros. HABE has its own consolidated revenue and expenditure budget as an autonomous public Institute. Expenditure budget: 34 million euros (76%) Page 3 of 14 It is made up by the subsidies that HABE earmarks for the euskaltegis and self-learning centres, plus student grants. HABE agreements with IVAP, Osakidetza, Department of Education… HABE pays the enrolment fees for students from other sectors (10%). Consequently, 86% of the budget is used as grants. 14% are the costs of the entity as such, 8% of which are staff expenses. Revenue budget Funding sources:  Basque Government’s Ministry of Culture: 30.6 million euros (68%)  Public sector student enrolments. Agreement billing: 13.2 million euros (29%)  Own income (sale of publications, exam fees, certificate fees…): 1.3 million euros (3%) Budgetary priorities:  Subsidies and grants to different stakeholders in the sector:  To euskaltegis, managed for the academic year by two call for application processes:  Municipal publicly-funded euskaltegis (HABE pays the salaries of the permanent members of staff): 12.6 million euros.  Private euskaltegis: 22.2 million euros. The basic modules are subsidised by class hour according to efficiency parameter incentives.  Public call for applications from students who accredit exceeding knowledge levels.  Possibility of fully or partially recovering the amount of the enrolment fee paid by the student: 1.8 million euros.  Basque Clubs: Separate call for application process: 230.000 euros. LUIS MARI GONZÁLEZ DE TXABARRI, member of the HABE Curriculum Department, went over the work on curriculum development at HABE between 1981 to 2010. The first attempt at defining Basque for Adults curriculum dates back to 1981. In 1984, a curriculum was defined, which included the academic experience gathered at the HABE pilot euskaltegis and at the municipal euskaltegis. In particular, the 1984 curriculum laid down the work rate, the learning loads and the teaching load of each teacher. In 1987, the third test curriculum was published and it would be implemented in 1989. The communicative approach was already included in this curriculum. HABE therefore worked with four proposals prior to the 2000 curriculum, that is currently in force. There are three curriculum subjects defined: Administration, the euskaltegi and the teacher. The Administration is in charge of designing and defining contents, methodology, implementation times, materials, rates. The 2000 curriculum radically changed the approach: it attempts to define a basic framework for action to meet the needs detected over the last twenty years. Page 4 of 14 Four characteristics:  It is a basic design to be developed  Democratises the curriculum design by making room for new stakeholders  It affects both the process and the product: o The sociolinguistic contexts at mesocurricular level (centre and microcurricular) (euskaltegis) and the specific needs of the students at microcurricular level (classroom) come into play in the design, development and implementation of the curriculum.  It turns the student into the hub of the process Special mention should be made of the following among the epistemological and psycho-pedagogical bases of the current Basic Curricular Design: At language level, the transfusing of:  knowledge to use  a synthetic vision of language to an analytical one  the product to the integration of the process  the phrase to text and to the pragmatic  correction to adaptation  linguistic knowledge to communicative capacity. And, at psycho-pedagogical, the constructivist conception of learn where the following stand out:  Logical significance of the contents  Psychological significance for the student, and  favourable attitude towards learning The basic curriculum implemented by HABE must be updated and adapted to its needs for each euskaltegi according to the socio-linguistic situation and the characteristics of its students. JUXTO EGAÑA and AINTZANE IBARZABAL, HABE Department of Assessment and Accreditation managers, outlined the HABE certification system (2003-2010). Assessment as a core and central aspect of the learning process and certification as a partial aspect of the assessment. HABE defines its curriculum as a 4-level system (corresponding to B , B , C and C of 1 2 1 2 the European Benchmark Framework) and 12 sub-levels. HABE has a unified accreditation system for the students of all euskaltegis, developed into parameters of reliability, validity and practicability that are interrelated to the learning tests and process. HABE prepares the accreditation tests, manages the implementation of the sessions in a controlled way, validates the scores and issues the certificates. The euskaltegis have representatives on the Examination Committee, on the scoring and correction tribunals and provides teachers and examiners. Page 5 of 14 At the last session, 15,000 students took these tests and 500 examiners corrected and scored the papers. At the 2009 session, 59.73% of the candidates were awarded a “pass” at level B , 1 48.08% at B , 28.92% at C and 46.15 at C . 2 1 2 The importance of the tutorial system in the architecture of the HABE accreditation system has been stressed. 25 tutors, entrusted with training the examiners and ensuring the criteria unification to correct the exams. Aintzane Ibarzabal then described how the HABE accreditation is interrelated with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages in the context of minority languages: the reference levels (A , A , B , B , C and C ), the descriptors, the tutors of 1 2 1 2 1 2 the levels and unifying the accreditation criteria. At midday, the group went to Lazkao, in the Goierri district of Guipuzkoa, to visit the MAIZPIDE euskaltegi-barnetegi (residential), which was opened in 1988. The building belongs to the Basque Government. It is assigned to HABE and was built expressly as a Basque for Adults residential centre. It is managed by the MAIZPIDE teachers cooperative and has been assigned for renewable ten-year periods. From the pedagogic-legal perspective, the euskaltegi is an authorised centre, 60% funded by HABE and 40% by student enrolment fees. The euskaltegi specialises in teaching residential intensive courses, basically in monthly modules, 4 weeks from Monday to Friday. It can accommodate up to 140 students in formal classroom-based courses, which are in the form of intensive modules. Each student opts to accumulate one, two, three or more monthly modules. There are students who take a sabbatical to learn Basque throughout the academic year. The aim of the barnetegi (residential) is the educational immersion in an efficient process that leads to the use of Basque in the shortest possible time. The teaching activities are consolidated by out-of-class initiatives involving the local and Lazkao social stakeholders. They have played a key role in providing complementary programmes to those at the euskaltegi over more than thirty years. 15-06-2010 The morning session began with a personal, professional and institutional presentation of the participants at these Work Seminars: Name - Surnames Origin Institution Post IEO Project manager Cecila Chapduelh Occitan Welsh Assembly Welsh for Adults Policy Awen Penri Wales Government Page 6 of 14 Welsh Assembly Welsh for Adults Policy Siwan Gwyndaf Wales Government Consorci pera la Manager Pilar López Martínez Catalonia Normalitzacio Linguis. NPLD European Officer Catrin Edwards Secretariat Government of Navarra Managing Director Xabier Azanza Navarra Government of Navarra Service Director Julen Calvo Navarra Government of Navarra Service Director Ruben Fuertes Navarra Xunta de Galicia Deputy General Manager Xoan Rivas Cid Galicia Xunta de Galicia Adult Education Martín Ramos Insua Galicia Ministry of Education Language Learning and Maie Soll Estonia Teaching Basque Basque Government (HPS) Ministry technician Araceli Diaz de Lezana Country Joxe Joan González de Basque Basque Government Language Educational Txabarri Country (HABE) Section Manager Eugenio Mujika Basque Basque Government HABE Managing Director Galparsoro Country (HABE) Page 7 of 14 JULEN CALVO, Service Director of the Autonomous Government of Navarra, described the legal framework for the Euskarabidea work of the Autonomous Community of Navarra, created by Regional Legislation 183/2007, of 10 September. Its work includes:  Managing material, technical and personal resources to teach Basque, particularly to adults  Preparing, updating and studying curriculum contents for teaching Basque to adults  Preparing and disseminating educational materials for teaching Basque to adults and the specific feature of the Autonomous Community of Navarra of having three linguistic zones:  Basque speaking  Mixed  Non-Basque speaking Adult education is governed in Navarra by Regional Legislation 161/1988, of 19 May. He then described the presence of Basque in the educational system, by linguistic zones, models and networks. A. 18.28 % D + B 23.00 % G 56.36 % TIL (English) 1.88 % With regard to Basque for Adults process, the Navarra system has two networks: Public network  Zubiarte euskaltegia, public centre of the Navarra Government.  Official Language School.  Euskarabidea. It provides courses for public employees.  Local councils. Social initiative network  AEK  IKA  Bai & By 1,527 adults are currently studying Basque in Navarra: (approx. figures in %, by levels): 1.A. 43% 1.B 15% 2.A. 11% 2.B 5.5% 3. 10% EGA 8.10% Self-taught: 2.9% Page 8 of 14 Oral. Prac. Consolid. 4.5% The Navarra Government earmarks 390,000 euros as grant-subsidy to those euskaltegis. The future challenges facing Euskarabidea include:  Curriculum  Adult data systematization  Official recognition of euskaltegis.  Accreditation  Educational inspection  Producing educational materials  Motivating students JUAN BAUTISTA BERGARA, the HABE Training Section manager, outlined the design of the academic continuous training programmes, taking into consideration the characteristics of the sector’s teaching staff and its distribution in esukaltegis, by size, duties and geographical distribution. The teaching staff is professional, dedicated and with accumulated experience in the sector. In this context, the HABE continuous model seeks to carry out a specific monitoring of needs, which arise from the own programmes of the Language Educational Service emanating from the Administration or in response to the requests submitted by the euskaltegis themselves, in a classroom, online or combined format . He ended by connecting to the HABE website to show the set of educational activities that HABE organised during the 2009-2010 academic year and their characteristics. JOSU PERALES, editor of the HIZPIDE magazine and of the “Itzulpen Saila” collection, described the publishing work that HABE produces from its Training Department. HIZPIDE seeks to train Basque language teachers. It has a circulation of 570 copies and three issues are published every year. It features articles covering Basque language education, psycho-linguistic, pedagogical and linguistic themes. The magazine is distributed in universities and students studying those areas resort to its articles. Over 90% of the authors are currently university lecturers or teachers at euskaltegis, who write about their experiences, thoughts and contributions. The magazine is also a dissemination means of the papers prepared by the HABE technical services. ITZULPEN SAILA, published annually, is a collection of translations of books, articles… of interest for training the teachers of the euskaltegis. 450 copies are published. Publishing it in an e-book format is currently being discussed. OIHANE OLIVERI, a technician at the HABE Library, then described this service: Over the last two decades, HABE has collected, catalogued and made generally available the most important international documentation published on multilinguism in Page 9 of 14 its different facets. Its library now has a collection of 40,000 volumes, 605 magazines and a wide range of documents on other media. Habe Liburutegia Sections It is organised into three sections: 1. The section that collects the documents referring to the educational, psychological, sociological and educational aspects of multilinguism. 2. The section responsible for materials for teaching and (self)learning languages. 3. The section that collect all the works produced in Basque. The first section is very technical and seeks to meet the needs of the HABE technicians and, by extension, of the Basque Government, university lecturers and university students, graduates working on their PhD thesis, researcher and other experts in the sector. It is made up of the following sub-sections: a. Language teaching: programming and assessing, methods and approaches, teacher training, psychological variables (motivation, aptitude…), the four skills, vocabulary, pronunciation, language for specific purposes, group dynamics… b. Sociolinguistics: situation of the languages of the world, linguistic situation of the countries around the world, linguistic planning and policy, diglossia and bilingualism, linguistic mainstreaming, minorized languages, language contact, maintenance, replacement and death of languages, laws and languages, media and languages, gender and language, language and social classes, language and religion, young people and languages, languages and migrations… c. Psycho-linguistics: children’s language, language acquisition, acquiring a second and third language, cognitive linguistics, biolinguistics, neurolinguistics… d. Languages in the educational systems: multilingual and bilingual linguistic models in the educational systems around the world, languages at universities, school, language and immigration… The second section contains methods and materials for teaching and (self)learning of numerous languages: from Basque to Chinese, and including Spanish, English, Catalan, French, German, Arabic, Russian, Japanese, Hindi, Polish and many more. The library also has numerous DVDs with films in different languages for more advanced learners. The third section is a general Basque language library, where the user can learn more Basque in any field, as well as being able to access all the literature written in the Basque language. Users The library currently has 5,700 users with a variety of profiles: teachers and students of Basque, English, French and other languages; Basque language technicians in the different public administration; university lecturers and students; researchers; graduates working on their PhD; general public. Page 10 of 14